The Tiwi Islands are part of Australia's Northern Territory, 100 km north of Darwin where the Arafura Sea joins the Timor Sea. They comprise Melville Island and Bathurst Island, with a combined area of 8,320 square kilometres (3,212 sq mi).
The first European settlement on the Islands was at Fort Dundas, near present-day Pirlangimpi on Melville Island. Established in September 1824, this was the first British settlement in northern Australia, but owing in part to the hostility of the Indigenous population it lasted only five years, being abandoned in 1829. As the first attempted European and military settlement anywhere in northern Australia, the site is on Australia's Register of the National Estate.